"Jazz" chords are simply chords.
Just like the name "Folk" or "Cowboy" chords have been associated basic open position chords that movie cowboy singers like Roy Rodgers and folk artist's like John Denver played. The chords that jazz guitarists played came to be called “jazz” chords.
These jazz chords are simply chords. Typically 4-part chords like major sevenths, sevenths and minor sevenths . Although these chords appear more complex and use more of the guitar neck than the first few frets. These chords can be organized and learned like the basic chords one typically learns.
On guitar these "jazz" chords can be organized into four strings sets. And, four string set, with the most being strings set comprising strings 1234, 2345, 3456, 1235, and 2346. Using a C7 chord as your foundation or core chord - this gives you 20 voicings on guitar to learn. On ukulele one the 1234 string family is available, for four C7 chords - a little less daunting of a task. The number of chords to master as a jazz guitarist contributes to the mystic of "jazz" chords being hard to learn. Not really hard to lear, just a lot of them.